Blister Machine DPH260 for packaging of alu-alu. Our item variety contains a wide variety of pharmaceutical blister packaging machine, pvc blister packing machine, pharmaceutical alu blister packaging machine, totally automatic alu blister packing machine, double track alu blister packing machine and semi-automatic pvc blister packing machine. Blown Films – Plastic films developed from synthetic resins (such as polyethylene) by the blown approach. Moreover, the writings on blister packaging will remain intact for a lengthy time. The warm plastic will then arrive in a forming station where a huge stress (4 to 8 bar) will kind the blister cavity into a negative mold. It is the technical specifications that decide the capability of blister packing machine. Al Thika Packaging provides you the widest range of packaging, sorting, wrapping, inspection & coding machinery solutions for the Fruit and Vegetable market, helping you in your search for the optimal packaging for your solution. The individualized and generally tiny compartments do not let for the movement of solution within the packaging. The blisters therefore are the principal packaging, and they are usually sealed to a card that offers secondary packaging. For now, let’s break every single of these components down by reviewing their principal functions in blister packing equipment. Even so, picking a machine with the right functions will assure accomplishment in any blister packing procedure. It depends on the thermoforming technique to form the PVC Alu blister package. In most situations, the thickness of PVC film for blister packing approach ranges from 200µ to 300µ. Strip packages type strip packs around the capsule or tablet which is not the case in blister packaging. Geographically the international digital packaging market place is segmented into 7 crucial regions including North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ), Japan, and Middle East and Africa (MEA). In contrast to the BP series, SaintyCo ABC Blister Cartoning Line is a huge and robust machine that packs liquid fills and Lyophilized glass vials with ampoules. All these machines have diverse designs and construction. We are a manufacturer of Mobile Accessories Packing there since we can accept customization, so no matter what packaging you want, we will attempt our very best to give you the ideal packaging for your brand. Among the a lot of IMA blister packing machines incorporate the C96-A96, C80HS, GIANT, EXPRESS N, and so forth. Bottelpack by Rommelag is a range of sophisticated aseptic manufacturing machines that blow mold, fill, and seal containers in a continuous, automated process recognized as blow-fill-seal. You never need to alter distinct variable for blister packages to hold the various goods as opposed to plastic packaging. A blister packing machine is an assembly of parts and elements. In case, the machine rejects a blister package, you will have to remove the products from the blister package. Like the name suggests, its blister forming mould and heat sealing systems are plate shaped. This may contain manufacturing date, expiry date, content of the blister packaging, directions, and so forth. Of course, this is also due to a linear get in touch with in between the blister cavity material (PVC) and lidding material (aluminum foil). The B1660 blister machine installed at Haupt Pharma types a completely coordinated packaging line in combination with the C2504 cartoner. Bottelpack is used to aseptically package diverse pharmaceutical merchandise: liquid options, creams, oinments, and gels. The sensible bottle segment inside the digital packaging marketplace itself is estimated to be reach US$ 200 million by 2024. The mechanical drive and blister forming tooling program are robust to withstand the dynamic requirements in tiny scale productions. The report on the Tablet Packaging Equipment marketplace is segmented primarily based on the product kinds, regions, application and crucial manufacturers. In the case of thermoforming , a plastic film or sheet is unwound from the reel and guided although a pre-heating station on the blister line. Blister packing machines come in many designs and choices. Get Used Pam Pack Blister Packaging Machine – Model BP 602Make : Pam PackModel : BP 602Keywords : Pam Pack, Blister, Packaging, BP 602For A lot more Specifics Please Get in touch with us. I have been involved with a number of manufacturing purchases and plant begin ups and development of new packaging supplies from extrusion, printing, laminating, converting, etc. Even though the design and style of SaintyCo BP 180 Automatic Packing Machine resembles the BP 120 and B150, it is slightly bigger in size.
You can also refer to this gear as a tropical blister packing machine. Well-made Custom Packaging for Mobile Anti Radiation and other related goods. On the other hand, higher speed machines are known for their high production. Very good roller type heat-sealing overall performance of blister packaging machine is great, with stability, no waste edge blanking in the horizontal direction, appropriate synchronization, favored by users. SCHOTT is one particular of the world’s leading suppliers of parenteral packaging for the pharmaceutical business. We are the leader manufacturer of Semi Automatic PVC Blister Packing Machine and offer our consumers with best service. Blister packaging is a price-efficient way of showcasing a solution. Without the correct sort of blister packing machine, all your efforts will be futile. Properly-made Custom Packaging for Electronic Elements or any other kind of components. Rear-view enhancement and corner-view cameras are projected to remain dominant among goods in the automotive camera industry, in terms of revenues. 42. Disadvantages of thermoforming blister pack: The protective properties are not sturdy because of the PVC’s poor barrier against moisture and oxygen ingress. I will come back to that later in chapters 6 and 11 of this blister packing gear guide. This could affect the integrity of the package to type a full barrier about different goods. You don’t forget in chapter 6 I did go over various sorts of blister packing machines depending on an array of factors. TECNOMACO ITALIA’S vision is to establish a leadership role in improving and optimizing bottom line productivity levels for our current and future consumers by integrating our expertise in engineering and style development of automated packaging machinery. Markem Imaje is globe key producers of coders and printers used in printing options for bakery packaging. The analysis study on the Tablet Packaging Equipment market place offers precise evaluation of the international marketplace along with potential competitive environment. If we compare the positive aspects and disadvantages of this kind of packaging, we will come to know that advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Blister packaging can effortlessly be sealed utilizing heat sealing machinery. Automation reduces human intervention that is prone to most errors that can add costs to the production procedure. Well, these are not the only materials you can use for blister packaging procedure. Demand and supply despite the fact that the blister packing machine price may possibly vary with supply and demand, it does not have an effect on it all the time. For instance, a tropical blister packing machine is longer than the thermoforming blister packing equipment. It is appropriate for capsule and tablet with AL-AL packing in pharmacy, healthcare, meals, cosmetics, healthcare gear industry and so forth. Global air cushion packaging market place is estimated to witness robust development due rapid development of the e-commerce market. This outcomes in either more than packaging for top quality or beneath packaging for saving rates and barely achieves optimum packaging. Several machinery makers guarantee a higher degree of accuracy with their filling gear, but identifying which kind of liquid a company needs to bottle can make obtaining the correct filling machine a lot less difficult. Packaging trends and market place requirements for wider solution variety add further pressure. These boxes are extensively utilized in packaging of numerous goods such as foods, beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, hazardous chemicals and other supplies. The machine must have a robust manage program that can ensure production efficiency and consistency. Herbs, drugs and other environmentally sensitive items could advantage from blister packaging for this explanation. When you have these cavities, the machine will then cool the film to form a rigid plastic cavity. Besides the common configuration, this model blister packing machine can also be equipped with other devices, e.g. Germany Siemens electrical equipment, Japan Panasonic servo traction, Germany Festo pneumatic components, Japan or France brand name camera detection. Digital packaging market is observed to steadily include conventional packaging formats which are remodeled to incorporate the principles of digital packaging. As you can see from the technical specifications, you can effortlessly adjust the machine specifications to your special packaging demands. Molds manufacturing : Consumer supply sample(3D drawing)—Tooling design(Aluminum Alloy drawing approval by client)—CNC Programming & Machining —-Forming Die drilling & Screening—-Mold base& Tooling assembly —Prototype trial run—Sample market place testing by clients.
Can be connected to subsequent machines, e.g. Higher-Speed Cartoners, to form a complete pharmaceutical packaging line. As per market place our item with ideal good quality and stander with complete fill your requirement. This is the part that seals the filled cavities in the approach of blister packaging. We are a manufacturer of cable packing or any other variety of cable or accessories there since we can accept customization, so no matter what packaging you want, we will try our very best to give you the best packaging for your brand. The worldwide compostable packaging market is anticipated to witness a strong development owing to the escalating consumer awareness about environmentally-friendly products. The dates companies require numerous packaging solutions to supply a quality and standard product in an attractive presentation. BFS is typically the safer, far more versatile, and much more price-powerful choice for aseptically filling and packaging liquid and semi-solid items. Clearly, the two machines have distinct designs. Among application sort meals & beverage is large segment of multi depth corrugated boxes market place, nonetheless electronic product is ideal for global multi depth corrugated boxes industry. It is accountable for cutting completely processed blister packages from the major material. Printing the packages for better identification of the merchandise. SaintyCo BP 120 Tiny Blister Packing Machine is a cGMP compliant, extremely flexible machine that fits tiny batch productions. This will make the blister packing procedure effortless and basic. We also cater to other pharma machines like blister packing machine, capsule filling machine, ointment filling machine, liquid filling machine, tablet compression machine, fluid bed dryer hence creating the group a one stop supply for all the requirements of our buyers pretaining to capsule section, tablet section, liquid section and ointment section. QR codes are an additional important technology being utilised in the worldwide digital packaging industry. Tecnomaco was founded in 1994, and has sophisticated to become a planet class supplier of Packaging Pharmaceutical Machinery. As a premier blister packing machine manufacturer and supplier, SaintyCo has invested in thermoforming, cold-forming and tropic blister packing machines. Blister Packing Machine embossing station. Packaging components. provides 700 blister packing machine alu alu items. The truth is that drive program plays a critical function in blister pack sealing machines. You only have to assessment the machines datasheet or technical specification to know whether or not it is a high, medium or low speed blister packing machines. The global digital packaging marketplace is observed to be in the germination stage and is anticipated to expand significantly more than the forecast period 2017-2027. This machine have both the benefits of similar products at residence and abroad,it adopts heating roller get in touch with heating, adverse stress molding, blister satiation and firm. This can imply the use of printed elements on the packaging that users or customers can use to acquire access to digital content material or items. In this kind of packaging, days of the week are incorporated on the sheet, so the patients have a far better idea as to how frequently they are required to take their medication. Air cushion is a packaging material produced up of polyethylene and extensively employed for packaging of assortment of goods such as electronics, pharmaceuticals, automobile components and customer products amongst other people. Item Name: Mobile Accessories Packing. The pharmaceutical company has had a restricted alternative in blister packaging films. Our commitment to delivering quality products and our consumer-focused approach has created us marketplace leaders. Product Name: Flash Disk Packing or USB drive Packing. By way of standardized and standardized production, verify and confirm regardless of whether the performance parameters of the chosen blister packaging machine conform to the production method, and through a series of instructions and tests offered The data prove the reliability and stability of the equipment in the production, and it will not be handed over to the customer till all indexes of the product meet the method needs and GMP specifications. 2). Blister Packing Machines. Especially created for critical RH items with cold storage rooms specially committed for storing and dispensing of Potassium Clavulanate, essential environmental condition is maintained in tablet manufacturing section.
At instances, you can also refer to them as pharmaceutical blister packing machines. Apart from syringes, there is also the ampoules and vials blister packaging machine. Fairly a quantity of blister packing machine suppliers have adopted variable frequency stepless speed regulation. The blister packaging machine will automatically move the packages straight to the cartoning machine right after effective packaging. In addition to these, you can configure the blister packing gear with carton machines. At present, a lot of blister packaging machines in the market are broadly used in purification workshops and hospital reagent rooms due to their little footprint, low investment, multi-functional use, higher efficiency, pollution-totally free and low noise. 64. Most machines employ a vertical feed (gravity drop) but sometimes the web is run horizontally with a platen sort sweep. Meanwhile, it appears in to the various development techniques governed by main vendors of the Tablet Packaging Gear market. Multifunctional roller aluminum-plastic blister packaging machine,use PVC difficult and inhibits PTP aluminum foil for packaging material, and plate blister form , automatic packaging numerous capsule, tablet and pill, and so forth. Considering that 1961, IMA Group has been designing and promoting a variety of pharmaceutical machines for a variety of pharmaceutical applications. It is a dual material tailor made remedy for corrugated box and plastic film bag which filled with an air. Thermoforming is a strategy which requires heating PVC sheets before inserting it into a blister machine. Clear, protective, and sturdy thermoformed plastic packaging enables the customer to completely view the solution whilst preserving the safety of the item. This compact size machine with all functions, beginning from Forming film preheating, Pocket forming, Auto feeding, Missing detect, Rotary sealing, Coding, Perforation, Trimming to final product, offering finish user automatic production process, save price and a lot more effective (see Flow Chart). Delivering completely integrated options to guarantee solution quality and safety, regulatory and retailer compliance and improved manufacturing processes. Once you have the appropriate model of the blister packing equipment, operating it does not require significantly instruction. Foils for aluminium foils, Blister Foil , Strip Pack Foil, Lidding Foil, Pharmaceutical Foil, Pharma Foil, Cigarette Foil and 4 Ply Packaging in Ahmedabad Gujarat India. 16. 1. Forming Film The forming film is the packaging element that receives the item in deep drawn pockets. Biscuit & bakery sectors need flexible packaging solutions that assure products are marketed in a presentation that is appropriate for classic merchandise, in attractive and simple to use packages. Mid Barrier Films – Duplex for sensitive drugs, Super, Topas and Ultra are the films that are utilized for packaging. Together with rolling method, it feeds material to the blister packing system. It is the only certain way to obtaining higher high quality and reliable blister packing gear. Government regulations minimizing the counterfeiting practices in the food & beverage and pharmaceutical items is yet another aspect attributing to the development of track and trace method market place in the region. It is the initial section of the machine which receives supplies from feeding systems. Depending on your production demands, you can order for a variety of blister packing machine alter parts. Don’t forget, with the blister packaging approach, it is less complicated to preserve quality and integrity of components. In spite of the low expense, the packaging method is straightforward with high ROI even on packaging of complex items. In this write-up I will refer to a checkweigher utilised for weighing modest containers, containing dosages of liquids or solids such as capsules, granules, powder, oral liquids, tablets, etc., utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical packaging line industries. When it comes to pharmaceutical blister packing machines, the cGMP compliant style is a need to. It is a totally automatic machine that attributes ABB robot feeders for seamless blister packaging. Generally, this is the principal tool that will decide the shape of a blister packing. In order to improve the efficiency of the Alu Alu blister packing machine, some enterprises strictly manage from structural design, manufacturing to inspection, start from structural design, continuously enhance, and continually improve and accumulate design and production encounter. Flexographic printing has impacted every segment of the packaging world.
SSPI Adheres to High quality Parameters at Every single Stage of Production with higher Skilled Technical staff and strict handle Supervision by Company’s Owner Sufficient care is being taken to adhere to GMP norms For Manufacturing & Strict Good quality Inspection at all stage OG Manufacturing. But in the pharmaceutical sector in distinct, the goods getting filled can sometimes be very temperature sensitive. We understand clientele needs and continually improving buyer satisfaction though exclusive and enhanced quality of merchandise and solutions. BPA (bisphenol A) – An estrogen-like item that is utilised to harden plastic in packaging such as bottles and cups. With us, you will locate a variety of models of the gear and choose the one that suits your packaging demands. The second variation is plastic packaging. Let’s take a look at the positive aspects and disadvantages of Blister packaging in detail. This incorporate the size and weight specifications of the blister packaging machine. From little blister packing machine for clinical trials, to higher production capacity, Mediseal tailors each machine for your distinct wants. SaintyCo CBC Capsule and Table Blister Cartoning Line makes it possible for for seamless integration with other accessories such as carton packer, weighing machine and strapping machine, amongst others. So here, I will just go through a fast overview of how a tropical blister packing machine functions. Yet another uncommon disadvantage of this type of packaging is that it makes use of foil backing, and sufferers can push the medicines by way of the foil, but it is child-resistant. The main structure of the machines is made of stainless steel components. The second configuration of blister packaging contains foil as the main element of the webs. For instance,Custom Transparent Laminated Plastic Bag with Ziplock for Mobile Telephone Cable Information Packaging. ULMA provides packaging solutions among 5 diverse packaging systems: Thermoforming , Traysealing , Horizontal Flow Pack (HFFS) , Vertical Flow Pack (VFFS) and Stretch Film , each with their unique potential to customise the package presentation and shelf-life demands of the product. 1. DPP-250Z blister packing machine follows ergonomic design and style principles and is in accordance to the GMP and CGMP structure standards. Safety, Reliability and Quality for Pharmaceutical Packaging. You can simply adapt such blisters machines to a range of packaging options. Bottle types of products are accessible (Optional). Because you know how a blister packaging machine performs, now let’s go additional to discover another crucial aspect of the blister packaging method. More than one hundred+ cutting molds of different shapes or sizes, advanced machines lines & strict inspection to guarantee the lids are with higher good quality & fairly appearance. Under the blister packaging process, person tablets or capsules are sealed within their personal cavity, usually produced of thermo-formed plastic or cold-kind aluminium, guarding the drug from contaminants such as moisture and oxygen by a barrier of foil, film or paper board. Preparing filling components by forming cavities on various formable internet supplies. In the pharmaceutical business, plastic and aluminum is usually the greatest option to keep the solution fresh. Yet another Helios blister packaging machine is the HC-101, which can pack up to two lakh (200,000) tablets in a shift. We draw from more than 22 years of encounter supplying packing , wrapping , coding equipment to assure our clients the highest good quality solutions for the commercial success of your goods and brands. As soon as the process begins, it will start to rotate gradually, allowing the sealing material to move to the guide rail. Bundle wrapping – (also identified as bull’s-eye packaging, due to the fact of its distinctive open ends) A flexible-film choice for heavier and larger multi-packs of two to 12 units that gives a surface for higher-impact graphics, making use of primarily print-registered polyethylene film. Currently, Romaco gives tons of packaging options in the pharmaceutical industry. Aluminium foil is also used to make secure packs (aseptic packaging) for drinks and dairy merchandise which enables storage with no refrigeration. Moreover, the international Tablet Packaging Gear market report gives a short assessment of the various elements that are expected to hamper the Tablet Packaging Gear sector dynamics across the globe. Really merely, this is packaging produced of multiple layers that has precisely the proper attributes to supply the product maximum protection.
It is constantly critical to remember, these techniques of pharmaceutical packaging only supply child-resistant packaging and not kid-proof packaging. Right here, when the machine thermoforms PVC Alu blister package, it seals it once again with a tropical aluminum. This will include important parts, functioning principle, classification, packaging process, and so forth. We have installed more than 50 machines in a variety of pharmaceuticals company’s all more than India with the cliental list attached. This is the cause this kind of packaging is acquiring well-liked not only in the United States but all over the globe. Bogus – Papers and paperboards which are manufactured from inferior components in imitation of greater high quality grades. This report focuses on the Tablet Packaging Equipments in global market, specially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. These are the components that assist in the feeding of components in the machine by exerting tension on the materials. Blister packs are useful for lengthy-term protection of goods from external factors such as moisture and contamination. In addition, a important rise in the number of players and the growing focus on desirable packaging are estimated to augment international bottled water packaging marketplace in the coming years. Our Firm make a wide range of pharmaceuticals packaging components duly printed as per requirement of our consumers. Additionally the ampoule blister packing machine might have an ABB robot feeder system or YAMAHA robot feeder method. For this imperative, Bilcare evaluation has introduced a broad form of films, consequently customers will presently pick the foremost efficient packaging even though not compromising on protection demands. The components that we use to manufacture these machines are procured from the certified vendors of the marketplace. Advantage of cold form foil blisters is Use of aluminum offers a near complete barrier for water and oxygen, allowing an extended product expiry date. At this point, the lidding material will cover the forming film (with goods). You can also configure pharmaceutical blister packing machines for other items such as syringes and bottles. There are a number of distinct varieties of blister packaging – Face Seal, Trap, Mock, Slide and Interactive. According to the GBI Research , blister packing types about 17% of the pharmaceutical packaging in the worldwide industry. They are all great quality supplies, protected and recyclable. These blister packs can be used for just about any item, but are typical packages for modest consumer goods, foods and pharmaceuticals. As you can see from this video, most parts move to make sure quality blister sealing procedure. The machine will also confirm if the cavities have merchandise in them or not. This is simply because it can operate at high speeds hence a good instance of pharmaceutical blister packing machine. There are a limited quantity of firms operating in the international compostable packaging industry. These presented flat forming blister packing machines are manufactured using advanced technologies and qualitative raw material. These machines are recognized for low production capacity hence, suitable for research or clinical trials. Vertical Pouch Package Machine Water Milk Filling and Packing Machine Ah-1000, consisting of triangle-2G GPRS LoRa Data Transmission Customized Wireless Remote Pressure Monitoring Terminal Earth1006Factory Price Frameless Glass Stainless Steel Stair Balustrade Handrail. Bluricot Semi Automatic Blister sealing machine is made and built for industrial applications. Effectively, this is the quite very first thing you need to know even before choosing any sort of blister packing machine. Remember, you can only obtain this by purchasing higher good quality blister packing gear. As the market place leader in pharmaceutical glass containers, we have establish a worldwide network of 20 production websites to manufacture higher-good quality main packaging containers produced of type 1 borosilicate glass. The worldwide industry for Tablet Packaging Equipments is anticipated to develop at a CAGR of roughly xx% over the next 5 years, will attain xx million US$ in 2025, from xx million US$ in 2018, according to a new study. The sealed packaging of component blister brings much more worth to users, improves production efficiency, and tremendously reduces the price investment of enterprises. Economical for medium volume blister packaging machine, modest footprint conserves floor space, Fast-change Fixtures for simple changeover your products.
The firm also manufactures ALU blister packing machine spare components appropriate for all brands of machines that are claimed to be simple to set up, non-corrosive, and sturdy. There are liquid filling machines that can deal with foaming goods, also. ACG Pam has quite a quantity of blister packing machines ranging from the B, BP, CARTOBLIS, B MAX, BQS, TROPAC and MINIBLIS series. To choose the correct forming film material, you need to appear at house type, grade, and thickness of the plastic film. Your solution and brand are valuable and deserve the very best packaging to protect your goods and reputation. Solution Name: Gold Coins Packing. According to the study study, the international market for bottled water packaging is estimated to develop at a wholesome rate in the next handful of years. ULMA gives the widest variety of packaging options on the market for the meat & poultry sectors, from options for catering distribution to final retail distribution. Blushing – A print defect consisting of a hazy look, encountered in foil printing and caused by moisture trapped among the ink film and the surface of the substrate. It is a ideal option for small blister packing machines or for packing merchandise with unique shapes. Blister machine process of operation is the main process by means of which the machine goes via in packaging of distinct merchandise. Blister Packaging is witnessing higher growth across the planet due to the high security presented by these solutions. Vacuum forming is an extremely useful way of creating bespoke packaging out of rigid plastic. This machine can apply to manufacture higher quality pulp molding items, such as higher-grade Euro pallet, industrial packaging, craft products, decoration urinal bottle and and so on. Amongst the components that will be set in motion are the components that provide the packaging components and the manage panel. By carrying out so, you not only get the greatest market place rates, but also ability to customize the machine to your production needs. A wide range of blister packing machine alu alu choices are offered to you, such as pharmaceutical, meals. For blister packaging solutions in customer merchandise, you can count on Rohrer AG. Known for the R and RS series of blister packing gear, Rohrer AG styles and manufactures both normal and custom machines. Again, like the SaintyCo BP 120 Tiny Blister Packaging Machine, this machine attributes a totally automatic system with PLC and touchscreen HMI. Purchasing utilized chemical and pharmaceutical gear is really straightforward with The purchasers can also avail leading-quality support services like logistic, appraisal, and insurance coverage at a nominal price. The machine is created for blister forming, indexing, sealing and punching of the strong particles. From toys, craft supplies, beauty goods or gaming accessories, they will all fit in a blister packing machine. We are Manufacturer & Exporter of Blister Pack Machines. To improve the procedure, you will need a deblistering machine to boost the speed and efficiency of the deblistering process. Simple forming supplies loading thanks to the ergonomic position of the reel holder. Furthermore, our authorities team showcases primary and secondary resource tactics by means of a 3-dimensional perspective in order to evaluate individual market size, share, actual production price, consumption, demand- sales figures’ and profitability. Its HC -Triumph higher production blister packaging machine can pack up to six lakh (600,000) tablets in a shift with minimal air consumption. This makes the entire blister packaging program easy and quickly. Everything comes at a price, and there are no damaging effects or disadvantages that would stop you from utilizing it. Nonetheless, a quantity of advantages of blister packaging make it a much better choice than the other sorts of packaging. The distinction among a strip pack and blister pack is that a strip pack does not have thermo-formed or cold formed cavities the strip pack is formed about the tablet at a time when it is dropped to the sealing location in between sealing moulds. To stop retail theft, packages are particularly created so that the customer cannot touch and feel” the solution. Their machines range from low to high production, featuring Ramaco’s new technologies and innovations. Moreover, the sustainability of air cushion packaging market is extremely dependent on raw material supply and part of regional players. Romaco blister packing machines come in different layouts, which is space saving and study.